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                        Individual Behavior in Organization PDF
                        (611 votes, average 3.41 out of 5)
                        Written by Ashim Gupta   
                        Monday, 26 April 2010 17:55

                        Individual behavior in organization

                        Human behavior is complex and every individual is different from another, the challenge of an effective organization is in successfully matching the task, the manager and the subordinate. Under ideal situation, a manager would first analyze the task, then determine the required skills and assemble a team that complement each other skills; thereby creating an enriching & conflict free team. In reality, a manager has to use the existing resources for a given task, and must have the ability to understand the differences in individual behaviors and use them appropriately to increase the synergy.  

                        In order to understand individual behavior and personalities, it is important to understand the basics of human cognition. 

                        Integrated human behavior model

                        I have formulated an abstract model of human behavior which explains the process that produces the individual differences.  Cognition is the thought process in humans that describes how the information we constantly acquire is transformed, stored and used as knowledge in future decision making. It includes a wide range of mental processes like visual imagery, language, problem solving, decision making etc.  The brain receives the stimuli from the external environment through the sense, which is immediately registered in our sensory memory, which is large but keeps the information for few seconds only.  The observation process tries to match the information in the sensory memory with the previous knowledge and creates a perception of the stimuli, thereby abstracting useful information from the sensory memory.  This abstracted information then passes to the short-term memory or the working memory, which also caches the related knowledge from the long-term memory. The short-term memory has slightly longer latency than the sensory memory, it is needed only till the reaction of the stimuli. The long term memory has enormous capacity and is the primary knowledge base. Integrated Individual Behavior Model
                                            The stimuli demands some action (even the decision to ignore the stimuli is an action), the perceived stimuli combined with a set of related and abstracted experiences forms the initial input to the mind’s analytical process. This input is also influenced by the emotional and rational factors which in turn depend upon individual’s values and beliefs. The other two important parameters are the desired outcome and the required response time to the stimuli. At the center of the analytical mind is a myriad of cognitive processes that operate sequentially or in parallel, in complex permutations in order to satisfy these primary constraints.  The consequence of this entire cognitive activity is a response to the environmental stimuli, which is the observed as the behavior of the individual. Person’s thought process is an internal activity while the behavior can be observed. Finally, the resulting behavior is feed backed into the memory; it modifies the existing perceptual knowledge, seeds a new one or the stimuli and its response is simply ignored

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                        Dimensions of cognitive psychology

                        The cognition can be characterized by considering the process itself and its robustness.  At a higher level of abstraction, the thinking can be characterized as rational or emotional, while its robustness is determined by it stability.

                        Rational Vs Emotional Thinking

                        Rational thinking is a response based on process of logical reasoning; it involves some form of mathematical or statistical knowledge where the process has implicit proof of its validity. Attribution is one of the rational processes that involve determining the reason or cause of an observed behavior. 
                        Emotional thinking is a response based on how a person feels about the object in question. Neurologically, emotions follow a short cut pathway to limbic response, bypassing the other cognitive thought processes. It can be considered as most primitive response when dealing with incomplete and uncertain sensory data. However, emotions have considerable influence on decision making and other cognitive processes even with existence of alternate rational reasons. Emotions do bootstrap into prior emotional responses and it depends upon a person’s belief and values.

                        Stable Vs Evolving Experiences

                        Every stimuli creates a response which is stored in the long-term memory, repetition of the same stimuli over a period of time, hard wires the response.  These patterns of stimuli and response form a stable section of our cognitive processes, thus as the person ages, more and more responses get hard-wired.

                        On the other hand, stimuli that have little or no previously recorded responses are in the evolutionary stage, the response might change depending upon the cumulative degree of success of the previous responses.

                        Congruence between manager’s and individual’s behavior

                        Most of the text and research emphasizes the importance of individual behavior and how managers should use this knowledge for better task- to-employee matching, what they ignore is the importance of organization as a system.  In the organizational social system, the relationship between manager and the employees is not unidirectional but bidirectional. While the manager tries to assess the behavior of the subordinate, the subordinate also makes a continuous effort to evaluate the manager’s perspective and adapt to it. If this bi-directional process is successful, it would create a behavioral congruence between manager and subordinate and would be a positive outcome. Otherwise it would lead to dissatisfaction and frustration for both of them and would eventually lead to end of their relationship through job termination.Behavior Congruence

                        The subordinate will have a perception of his own job and non-work responsibilities and an expectation of how his manager would perceive the same. He will also have a selective and biased perception of his manager’s job and that would in turn influence his expectations and behavior.

                        Due to identification of this bi-directional relationship, the following discussion is adapted to reflect this concern.

                        Factors Influencing Individual Behavior

                        Abilities

                        Abilities of a person are the natural or learnt traits. Abilities can be classified into mental and physical abilities and different task requires different level of the two.  Mental abilities represent the intelligence, person’s deductive reasoning, and memory, analytical and verbal comprehension. Physical abilities include muscular strength, stamina, body coordination and motor skills. An individual’s self awareness of his own abilities determines how he feels about the task, while the manager’s perception of his abilities determines the kind of task he assigns to the individual.

                        Gender

                        Although, research concludes that men and women are equal in their mental abilities and job performance, society does emphasize differences. However, absenteeism is one area where differences are found and can be attributed to being primary caregiver to children. However, this creates a difference in self perception of one’s abilities, personal values and social behavior. Similarly, a manager’s personal values might influence how he considers gender as factor in his task assignment and evaluation.

                        Race

                        Race and culture exert significant influence when both workplace and society have considerable diversity.  Stereotyping and attributing behavior based on race and culture are common mistakes that influence individual behavior. It is important for both management and the staff of diverse workforce to learn about different cultures, their values, common artifacts and communication protocols.  This would create a more comfortable corporate culture and would subdue behaviors that might be perceived as insensitive and offensive.

                        Perception

                        Perception is the basic cognitive process that transforms sensory stimuli into meaningful information.  Most real life problems are multidimensional and the rational approach is often entwined with the gut feeling, resulting in individual perception. This quells the famous notion that reality is objective and thus everyone must perceive it the same way. Both managers and subordinates must recognize that perceptual differences exist and often are the reason for mutual dissatisfaction.

                        • Stereotyping:  It is categorization of individuals on basis of single attribute, it ends up creating a generalized and simplified belief that do not take into account other significant characteristics. Age, race and sex are the three most common basis of stereotyping; not only they are unethical but can cost missing resources.  In general, stereotyping leads to decisions that are based on inaccurate data that can result in unfair performance evaluations, job design or promotion.
                        • Selective Perception:  It is the process of selecting only the information that supports our pre-existing belief system, thereby eliminating the discomforting information. Selective perception acts like a catalyst to stereotyping because people tend to notice things that fit their existing notion and not notice things that don’t. 

                        Both stereotyping and selective perception can be beneficial only by chance since they are based on partial information. The specific situations in which they can be positively exploited cannot be used as reliable methods.

                        Attribution

                        Attribution is the process of observing behavior and then determining its cause based on individual’s personality or situation.  Attribution based on personality is due to internal causes and is termed as dispositional attribution. It includes personality traits like shyness, arrogance, intelligence, etc.  Attribution based on external influences and situations that are outside the control of individual are termed as situational attribution. The basic attribution framework uses three criteria mentioned below.

                        • Consensus: It is the extent to which other people in the same situation might respond similarly.  When behavior is attributed to consensus, the individual is not rewarded or penalized due his personality.
                        • Distinctiveness:  It is the extent to which the individual’s behavior can be attributed to situations or to his personality. If the person behaves the same way in seemingly different situations, then his behavior will be attributed to his personality.
                        • Consistency: It is the measure of the frequency of the observed behavior, how often does the behavior occurs? High consistency is linked to dispositional attribution while low consistency is linked to situational attribution.

                        Attitude

                        An attitude is the abstract learnt response of an individual’s entire cognitive process over a period of time. It is experienced as a quick response to a familiar situation without any deep reasoning; it forms the basis of biases and attribution errors.  As an example, an individual who has worked in various organizations might develop an attitude of indifference towards organizational citizenship.

                        Personality

                        Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological attributes that distinguishes one individual from another. The `integrated individual behavior model’ proposed above, is a framework to understand the process by which the personality develops over a period of time.

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                        Comments (104)
                        • Evelyn May Pasigue  - influence of environment factors to individual beh
                          :D
                          hi can you help me analyzed this..
                          Explain the influence of environmental factors to individual behavior in
                          organization?

                          thank you







                        • GERSHOM  - individual behavior organisation
                          SEND ME THIS BO0K ON PDF FORMAT
                        • Anonymous
                          Individual Differences as an asset for organization. if you put a light how
                          individual differences are asset for organization
                        • Moses
                          how can I get these notes
                        • Moses
                          how can get that note
                        • Moses  - re: re: student
                          Anonymous wrote:
                          [quote=Anonymous]can i gate some information how individual behavior affect
                          organization performance?
                          JOBIBS wrote:
                          i need this information for my report
                          [/quote]

                          how can I get these information about individual behavior
                        • Anonymous
                          what is the three factorsthat affect athe behavior in an individual in a team
                        • Anonymous  - re:
                          Anonymous wrote:
                          can i gate some information how individual behavior affect organization
                          performance?
                          JOBIBS wrote:
                          i need this information for my report
                        • CHERRY
                          Thanks so much for this info. I need it for my report. So helpful.
                        • ahmed  - Question
                          what are the similarities and differences between individuals at Organizational
                          Behaviour ?
                        • dinakshi sanjana
                          this article was very important for my studies.thank you
                        • rafael  - re:
                          [quote=rafael]what are the societal norms in individual behaviors
                          :?:
                        • rafael
                          what are the societal norms in individual behaviors
                          :?:
                        • Anonymous
                          can i gate some information about individual behavior on organization
                          performance
                        • Anonymous
                          can i gate some information how individual behavior affect organization
                          performance?
                        • Tayna Strohmeier  - Individual Behavior in Organization
                          Enjoyed reading through this, very good stuff, thankyou . “Be not careless in
                          deeds, nor confused in words, nor rambling in thought.” by Marcus Aurelius
                          Antoninus.



                          http://www.qSgwV4Aj7b.com/qSgwV4Aj7b
                        • best
                          :shock: thanks for the information provided... but please always add references
                          to any post you make... it would go a long way to help an individual reference
                          his work... thanks :lol: :D
                        • Bennie N. Collins  - Acknowledgement
                          This information is very useful to present day managers. I enjoy reading it but
                          would like to get more on '' the fundamental of individual behavior''.
                          Thanks.
                        • Anonymous
                          it helps me a lot
                        • Marcia Johnson  - individual behavior
                          I still don't understand what is individual behavior.Aren't there any fixed
                          definition?
                        • ivy  - individual behavior in organization
                          thank you..i learn a lot
                        • Renato M. Quimno  - Individual behavior.
                          Individual behavior in the organization is just like puzzle with different
                          sizes, shapes and colors. Just imagine how you play puzzle. The most
                          interesting part of the managers is on how to manage employees with different
                          culture, different belief and tradition. For me an ideal manager is a manager
                          who will say, "we will do this" not "you do that". Many managers who are not effective in implementation of programs, rules
                          and regulation of their company because even themselves are violators.
                        • etifwork  - ob
                          nice notes easy to understand thanks!
                        • sam kakila  - question
                          "Human being are heterogeneous" explain their implication to individual
                          behavior?? help plz.
                        • Peter Fisher  - Individual Behavior
                          Still learning at "67" thanks helped me lots.
                        • Happy Blogger  - Individual behaviour
                          Good notes and very helpful...
                          Keep up!
                        • subscriber
                          a very nice information
                        • Anonymous
                          As organisation become more big, managing individual behavior becomes complex,
                          discuss :oops:
                        • tsitsi
                          yor essays are so nyce....
                        • Anand
                          Very good compilation. Anand
                        • Dunya Koralage  - individual behaviour
                          this is a really good web site. it contained alot of important facts that i
                          needed. it was easy for me to catch up with the definition ans the facts were
                          explained in an easy way
                        • franca isibor
                          I need to know the property within the individual that accounts for his unique
                          behaviour.
                        • Uno
                          Very useful information, give me confidence for my exam :D :D :D :D :D :D
                          :)
                        • Anonymous
                          discuss how environmental changes impact on the design of organisation
                        • marol  - the individual
                          list,as far as possible in ranking order,the specific needs and expectation
                          which are most important to you as an individual.(Do not include basic
                          physicological needs such as to satisfy thirst or hunger,or a minimal standard
                          of accomadation.)
                        • tassadaq Khan
                          :0
                          Its nice information regarding OB.
                        • Flovian Juma
                          What are the roles of an individual behaviour in group performance?
                        • Renato M. Quimno  - Roles of individual
                          Every individual plays important role. Just look at your body. Observe how it
                          works? They work with according to their function. Right? 1. cooperation. 2.
                          understanding individual function. 3. respect individual function 4. give
                          importance of individual function.
                        • Anonymous  - re: i have a questions
                          the indvidual is the backbone of organization
                        • Renato M. Quimno  - Everyone in the organization plays an important ro
                          Big private companies employed with a multi colored award during their previous
                          studies. But why is it that more of them are failure. In the organization more
                          often we neglect the people who are working in the lower level. The question
                          is. When you entered for example restaurant, is it because you know the owner?
                          or it is because you like the ambiance? Who maintain the ambiance of that
                          restaurant? Is it the manager? Organization is just like a human body. When your
                          hands pick up something. The hands can't say that, the hands is only the
                          responsible of the success. But this is because of the cooperation of the whole
                          body itself.

                          That is why, we should give credit to the whole organization for every success
                          so that when you have another activity, everybody will cooperate with enthusiasm
                          and they will do more and cooperate more in your next activity.
                        • Anonymous
                          thank you for posting and this will help my studies.
                        • Anonymous
                          this write up was very helpful

                        • Anna Francis
                          The article is so logical and made me new for real i like i!as a resource
                          manager
                        • sakshi tyagi  - wow.......................
                          :P it`s too gud
                          i appciate dis work of ur
                          it`s mindbiloing
                          it help me lot in my study
                        • Anonymous
                          The article is educative

                          Thank you for the good work

                          :roll:
                        • kelvin sabas  - individual behaviour in organization
                          so nice attempted
                        • Nikhil Gautama  - Ability
                          an individual 's capacity to perform the various task in a job
                        • Moshi Balele Moshi  - re: human behavior
                          enrique wrote:
                          Ralph Baker was the office clown. He spent most of the day pulling practical
                          jokes on co-workers and telling jokes and tall tales to anyone who would listen.
                          His tall tales were becoming more unbelievable each day. Nobody took Ralph
                          seriously, but most did admit that he kept them entertained and thought he was
                          the funniest story teller in the whole office. While he did lighten up the day,
                          many fellow workers felt that Ralph was not doing his share of work. A few
                          others were just tired of the sometimes inconsiderable jokes and stupid tall
                          tales. For example, one day he hid the key to the file cabinet and told everyone
                          that their boss urgently needed certain files. Since the key is nowhere to be
                          found, drove the office in chaos.*

                          Using the various frameworks for understanding individual behavior, how would
                          you explain Ralph’s behavior? Expound.

                          Considering transactional analysis, identify what ego state is influencing
                          Ralph? If you want to communicate with him, what ego state will you adopt? What
                          are you going to say? Write the script of your statements as exactly as how you
                          are going to say it.


                          please do help me on this.
                          Ashim Gupta wrote:
                          The individual behavior and the factors influencing them forms the basis of the
                          cognitive behavior. Managers tend to favor the subordinates who exhibit
                          cognitive similarities to their own self, this provides them confidence in
                          delegating task to them since they can relate to them. Objectively, this might
                          not be the best use of resources & their potentials, but provides a better
                          leader-member match or creates an in-group.
                        • Adshar Jalani
                          do you have reference in human behavior in organization and public relation?im
                          so thankful if you can help me and send it to my email..thanks a lot..
                        • frank chaka  - i have a questions
                          individual expectations from an organization and an organization expectations
                          from an individual
                        • frank chaka  - thanks for your explanation
                          i need to know the individual expectations from an organization and organization
                          expectations from an individual
                        • Lenos  - appreciation
                          Most of the content here is helpful in one way or the other,however try to
                          elaborate and differentiate things were possible.thank you.
                        • charlo viloria
                          Thank for the knowledge, this helps me a lot in my master degree.
                        • janu  - individual behaivour
                          it is most help full notes,
                        • Bello olajide  - Mr
                          Pls I will be very delight if this request can be sent to my mail box (concept
                          of individual behaviour in an organisation).
                        • enrique  - human behavior
                          Ralph Baker was the office clown. He spent most of the day pulling practical
                          jokes on co-workers and telling jokes and tall tales to anyone who would listen.
                          His tall tales were becoming more unbelievable each day. Nobody took Ralph
                          seriously, but most did admit that he kept them entertained and thought he was
                          the funniest story teller in the whole office. While he did lighten up the day,
                          many fellow workers felt that Ralph was not doing his share of work. A few
                          others were just tired of the sometimes inconsiderable jokes and stupid tall
                          tales. For example, one day he hid the key to the file cabinet and told everyone
                          that their boss urgently needed certain files. Since the key is nowhere to be
                          found, drove the office in chaos.*

                          Using the various frameworks for understanding individual behavior, how would
                          you explain Ralph’s behavior? Expound.

                          Considering transactional analysis, identify what ego state is influencing
                          Ralph? If you want to communicate with him, what ego state will you adopt? What
                          are you going to say? Write the script of your statements as exactly as how you
                          are going to say it.


                          please do help me on this.
                        • jessel
                          what are the underlying issues /major ideas and concept on understanding and
                          managing individual behavior particularly on staffing?
                        • jessel
                          What are the underlying issues /major ideas and concept on understanding and
                          managing individual behavior.
                        • Mamatha  - Nice one
                          I like the info



                          can you also give some details abt the organisational behaviour?
                        • Anonymous
                          this is an interesting topic..i lyk it
                        • lovet  - why is working knowledge of organisational behavio
                        • alice quaye
                          A good work done
                        • uthayamagen
                          i need information about individuai behaviour
                        • richard  - effects .
                          what about attitude effect to an organization.
                        • Anonymous  - re: APPRECIATION
                          P SARAVANAN wrote:
                          GOOD NOTES. THIS NOTES MORE USEFUL FOR PREPARATION OF PROJECTS. THANK U....
                          mario ondo mbnasogo wrote:
                          i need informaction about human behavior in the organizacion
                        • anonymous  - i find this helpful
                          thnks..this really helped me in doing my project..i find it very interesting and
                          most of all comprehensive :)
                        • Benson URIO  - Labour officer
                          This is very educative article and so helpful to me as a coming labour officer
                        • Anonymous  - gratitude message
                          :) a big thanxxxxxxxxx 2 u. really it helped me a lot. so many many congrats 2 u
                          u have accomplished ur motto.
                        • Anonymous  - How individaul behave in an org
                          Bros hw far? Savour this.
                        • JANET  - OB
                          I WANT SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCE AMONG FOUR MODALS OF ORGANISATION BEHAVIOUR.
                        • Georgina Amoasi
                          this topic is interesting and i really appreciate it.
                        • jeewanthi dilrukshi
                          i need information about human behavior in organization.can you help me
                        • jay b kaluarachchi  - OB human behavior notes &
                          :idea: i can give u more information,,r u sri lankan,,,?we hv a hr trainee
                          vacancy in ur organization,,,,do u wanna dat or more info about OB
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                        • jeewanthi dilrukshi  - human behavior
                          i wont information about human behavior in organization.can u give me?
                        • Anonymous
                          :shock: shockng notes yr.....
                        • Gaspary E Mwakatuma  - Individual Behaviour in Organisation
                          it is a well researched material and attract further reading.
                        • anjeanette maravillas  - individual and group behavior
                          :) its much better that you elaborate more its uses and how they differ,how they
                          work w/ each other.....but nevertheless its good and useful...
                        • mbogiseni  - how individual behaviour is important in the work
                          :?: i cant find the importance of individual behaviour and the causes of the
                          differences in the work
                        • Ashim Gupta  - Individual behavior determines cognitive similarit
                          The individual behavior and the factors influencing them forms the basis of the
                          cognitive behavior. Managers tend to favor the subordinates who exhibit
                          cognitive similarities to their own self, this provides them confidence in
                          delegating task to them since they can relate to them. Objectively, this might
                          not be the best use of resources & their potentials, but provides a better
                          leader-member match or creates an in-group.
                        • K.L.deVera RN  - Great...Helpful
                          thanks a lot... this is really helpful
                        • P SARAVANAN  - APPRECIATION
                          GOOD NOTES. THIS NOTES MORE USEFUL FOR PREPARATION OF PROJECTS. THANK U....
                        • mario ondo mbnasogo  - human behavior
                          i need informaction about human behavior in the organizacion
                        • dhana  - add beliefs
                          :roll: :wink: yours note are very 9c bt add beliefs
                        • jedah  - nice 1
                          :P wow...nice its really helpful 2 me and to the other students.....tnx 2 u
                        • shaks  - appreciation
                          it is the best work i have ever seen since the time i started to search for
                          individual differences notes, thank you guys! i just hope i will get more!
                        • JOBIBS  - cognitive
                          i need this information for my report
                        • Protas
                          I have appreciated your work, I is a duty well done. Thank you
                        • oduah blessing  - i am kool with this
                          :D nice job
                        • Anonymous
                          wow!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
                        • ryzzelle gapuz  - individual behavior
                          :) the things here are very good,really,but, you should elaboprate some things
                          like the individual behavior in an organization.as a student its hard for me to
                          catch up things like this and like that.especially on the definitions
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